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Fiqh FAQ

Frequently Used Islamic Law (Fiqh) Definitions

Kinds of Permissible Acts
Wajib Obligatory on every Baligh person.
Wajibe Kifai Obligatory on everyone who is Baligh, but if one person does it, then the others are freed from the responsibility
Aqwa A stronger opinion; an opinion having more weight in the eyes of the jurists
Ahwat Based on precaution (ihtiyat); least likely to be at variance with the shari'a Ehtiyate
Wajib An obligatory precaution
Mustahab (Plural - Mustahabbat) Approved or commendable acts; things which if done carry their reward for their doer, but if omitted do not entail disapproval or any punishment. Recommended to perform
Mustahabb -i Muwakkad: Emphatically approved or recommended
Mustahabb Approved; commendable; recommended
Mubah or Jayez Permissible by law or lawful

Kinds of Not Recommended Acts

Haraam (or Mahzur) Forbidden for all Muslims
Makrooh Not recommended or undesirable, disliked by Allah
Karahat Disapproval; disapprobation; repugnance; abomination.

Other Kinds of Opinions

Ansab A more suitable opinion
Aqrab An opinion closer to traditional authority
Ashbah An opinion more in keeping with the principles of law
Ashhar An opinion more widely accepted a better known opinion; a more prevalent opinion
Awla A better or preferred (opinion)
Azhar A more obvious opinion; a more prevalent opinion
Rajih Preferable opinion while there are several opinions on an issue

Other Common Definitions

Adil A morally sound person who is expected to deal with people justly, righteously and honestly
Afd'al Superior
Amanat (or Amanah, Plural - Amanat) A thing deposited in trust; a deposit
Bulugh Puberty; legal maturity; coming of age
Baligh A person of legal age
Fatwa A verdict or decree of a Mujtahid or a Mufti
Hadath Pollution
Hadd (Plural - Hudud) Punishment as prescribed by Islamic law for special offenses
Ta'zir A punishment left to the discretion of a Magistrate or Judge, as against Hadd
Iddah The prescribed period after which a divorced woman or a widow is allowed to contract another marriage
Istihbab Approval
Istinja' A process or purification or cleanness after urination or defecation
Ithna 'Ashari The Twelvers ; the majority group of Shi'ahs who are the followers of twelve Imams
Najis Unclean; soiled
Qada' (Salat al-) A compensatory prayer offered after the due time, as against Salat al-Ada', a prayer offered within its due time
Qasr Reducing two Rak'ats from Zuhr, Asr and 'Isha' prayers, or renunciation of keeping fast (of Ramadan), during a lawful journey subject to special conditions explained in the relevant Chapters on Traveler's Prayers and Rules Concerning a Traveler.
Zan Certitude; presumption

Detailed Islamic Law Glossaries:

Islamic Law Books (Taudhihul Masae'l)

1. Fatawa of Ayatullah al Uzama Syed Ali Husaini Seestani.

2. Fatawa of Ayatullah al Uzama Syed Ali Husaini Khamenei

3. Fatawa of late Ayatullah al Uzama Sayyid Ruhollah al-Musavi al-Khomeini

4. Fatawa of late Ayatullah al Uzama Sayyid Abulqasim al-Khoei

5. Other Islamic Scholars

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